Are the youngest children in each academic year disadvantaged?


  • Being born in the fourth quarter of the school year increases risk for intellectual disability, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression; risk scores improve across quarters and are best in those born in the first quarter.

Why this matters

  • It is commonly believed that being the youngest in the school year can increase risk for numerous health conditions such as intellectual disability, ADHD and depression but assumptions have never been investigated until now.

  • Additional care and attention may be warranted in these younger pupils, to reduce their likelihood of developing these conditions.