Biomarkers of B-cell accumulation and axonal damage for aggressive multiple sclerosis


  • Combining the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CD20+/CD14+ ratio with CSF neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels may identify aggressive onset of clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or early multiple sclerosis (MS).

Why this matters

  • Biomarkers that identify tissue damage and subclinical disease activity are needed to determine aggressive disease courses in MS and CIS.

  • Identifying patients at risk of rapid disease progression may help personalize immunotherapy treatment in MS.