Complement activation in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

Takeaway

  • Complement activation occurred in both aquaporin-4 seropositive (AQP4+) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein seropositive (MOG+) patients (pts) with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD); however, complement-3 (C3) levels were significantly lower in AQP4+ and significantly higher in MOG+ pts versus health controls (HC), while C4 levels were significantly lower in AQP4+ pts than either MOG+ pts or HC.

Why this matters ?

  • Multiple prior studies have shown that complement activation underlies the pathology of NMOSD in AQP4+ seropositive pts, enabling a reliable diagnosis of this subtype of NMOSD and differentiation from multiple sclerosis; however, the role of complement in MOG+ NMOSD has not been previously reported.

  • The differential changes in complement levels suggest that C3/C4 is a potential diagnostic tool for differentiating AQP4+ and MOG+ NMOSD.