Development of a three-level staging system for grade 2 and 3 glioma and glioblastoma


  • A three-level staging system has been developed and validated for primary and secondary brain tumors that is capable of prognosing survival.

Why this matters

  • Primary and secondary brain tumors are common and associated with significant morbidity and mortality.

  • Most tumor types have spatiotemporal staging systems that define the extent of anatomic tumor spread over time as it relates to histopathological de-differentiation and prognosis. However, there is no such staging system for brain tumors, introducing challenges for accurate prognosis and barriers to the development of personalized therapy.

  • Development and validation of a staging system for brain tumors will help to more accurately prognose and inform treatment decisions for patients with brain malignancy.