Effect of smoking, vitamin D deficiency, and obesity on brain damage in early multiple sclerosis


  • Smoking status, but not vitamin D deficiency or obesity, can affect brain damage in early multiple sclerosis (MS).

Why this matters

  • Previous studies have demonstrated a link between modifiable risk factors – such as smoking status, vitamin D deficiency, and obesity – and MS rates, prognosis, and clinical outcomes.

  • The effect of these modifiable risk factors on lesion burden and brain volume is unknown and understanding this effect may improve clinical outcomes.

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