Extrinsic risk factors and neural alterations in spasmodic dysphonia


  • Recurrent upper respiratory infections (URIs), gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), and neck trauma are the best independent predictors of extrinsic risk for the development of spasmodic dysphonia (SD), and demonstrate a link with alterations in the sensorimotor preparatory network that contributes to SD.

Why this matters

  • As diagnosis of SD is currently based solely on clinical features, a detailed understanding of extrinsic triggers and how they influence abnormal functional brain organization is needed for better diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.