Plasma soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFr2) was able to distinguish patients with epilepsy from healthy controls and was associated with seizure frequency. Plasma sTNFr2 is potentially a useful clinical biomarker of epilepsy and seizure burden.
Why this matters
Although epilepsy is not a traditional inflammatory condition, inflammatory mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of epileptogenesis, seizure recurrence, and status epilepticus.
Clinical studies have identified a range of elevated inflammatory markers in the brain, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with epilepsy. However, results are conflicting, and studies have been limited by low sample size.
Cytokines of interest in epilepsy include those involved in the innate immunity or proinflammatory activity, the anti-inflammatory response, and the immune responses of T-helper cells, as well as neurotrophic factors. Investigation of inflammatory markers could reveal useful clinical biomarkers for determining epilepsy etiology or seizure frequency.