Sex-related differences in Parkinson’s disease risk modulation with smoking and alcohol intake


  • Current smoking and alcohol intake independently reduce the risk for Parkinson’s disease (PD) in both men and women; the risk-lowering effect of current smoking is stronger in men and the impact of alcohol consumption is stronger in women.

Why this matters

    This study establishes sex-related difference in PD risk modulation based on smoking and alcohol consumption and may inform future study design to determine the mechanism of risk reduction and PD prevention.