Simultaneous evaluation of risk factors for Parkinson’s disease


  • A series of independent factors exert either a risk or protective influence on Parkinson’s disease (PD) etiology by virtue of their co-occurrence in the same patient, but do not interact with each other.

Why this matters

  • There is a paucity of studies evaluating multiple risk factors and their potential interactions in PD simultaneously, and these findings are often inconsistent.

  • Identifying modifiable risk or preventative factors for PD has significant implications for its management and risk reduction through patient education and simple lifestyle changes; along with facilitating current research into targeted, effective therapies.