Systematic review of non-invasive neuromodulation clinical trials for migraine and cluster headaches


  • Clinical trials of the effectiveness of non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS), external trigeminal nerve stimulation (e-TNS), and single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (sTMS) in migraine were well-controlled with good study populations, whilst trials with other devices and in cluster headaches were generally less rigorous, few in number and/or not aligned with the International Headache Society (IHS) guidelines for pharmacological therapies.

Why this matters

  • Future trials should be rigorously designed and performed to facilitate comparison of results across devices including adherence to IHS guidelines.