Respiratory impairment is highly correlated with disturbed sleep and cognitive impairment in people with MS; assessments of respiratory function should be conducted from early stage MS.
Why this matters
Cognitive impairment may be present from the onset of clinical disease; severity of cognitive impairment in MS is associated with age and level of physical disability.
Respiratory conditions can arise in the clinical course of MS, including respiratory muscle weakness, sleep-disordered breathing, central sleep apnea, central respiratory dysregulation and neurogenic deglutition disorders.
It has also been shown that pulmonary dysfunction is associated with poor cognition in later life, potentially due to hypoxia, reduced functioning of neurotransmitters, increased systemic inflammation, or a combination.